Jul 03, 2020

Understanding Wet Mix Shotcrete Mix Design

understanding wet mix shotcrete mix design

Understanding Wet-Mix Shotcrete: Mix Design, Specifications, and Placement. by Marc Jolin and . Denis Beaupré. T. he purpose of this article is to examine the use of modern wet-mix shotcrete in under-ground environments. A critical review is provided of aspects such as mixture design, specifications, and placement. More specifically,

Understanding Wet-Mix Shotcrete: Mix Design ...

Wet Mix Shotcrete Principle The process involves forcing the wet mix to the nozzle through the delivery hose by means of compressed air. The mix is then shot at high velocity on the surface to be shotcreted. As shown in the figure-2 above, the mixed ingredient is delivered to the shotcrete pump by means of a transit truck.

Intro to Shotcrete Mix Design | CCP Shotcrete + Pumping

Wet-mix process This technique permits better c o n t r ol and more versatile mix de-signs than the dry-mix pro c e s s . Any type of admixture such as an air- e n - t r aining, water- r educing and/or set-c o n t r olling agent can be used. Thor-ough mixing of the ingredients is easier to achieve. Mo r e accura t e

Mix Design Hints for Shotcrete - Concrete Construction

SPEC MIX® Wet Process Shotcrete is a preblended pneumatically applied concrete designed for wet process repair applications, specifically formulated to produce a highly finishable material with excellent shooting characteristics. SPEC MIX Wet Process Shotcrete formulations come in ACI gradation 1 (WP-01) and gradation 2 (WP-02 & WP-03) to allow the applicator the ability to select a product specifically designed with an aggregate gradation formulated for the depth of the application.


In the 1950s, wet-mix shotcrete, the use of coarse aggre- gate in both processes, the rotary gun for dry-mix shotcrete, and more efficient concrete pumps for wet-mix shotcrete were introduced. Many improvements were made to wet-mix equipment, primarily concrete pumps and materials, in the 1970s and 1980s.

Technical Questions and Answers Archive - American ...

SHOTCRETE (To View Hidden Text, Type . CTRL-H) PART 1 – GENERAL 1.1 SECTION INCLUDES . A. Shotcrete applied by [dry-mix] [or] [wet-mix] process. 1.2 RELATED SECTIONS . A. Section 0301 30 - Maintenance of Cast-in-Place Concrete:for examining and preparing shotcrete repairs of existing cast-in-place concrete.

Shotcrete Mix Design for 9 cubic foot mixers | Monolithic ...

shotcrete mix design is divided into wet mix and gunite to dry mix.This article focuses on the target mix design of shotcrete. The bulk density of wet sprayed concrete can be 2200-2300 kg/m 3, The weight ratio of cement to sandstone is preferably 1. 0: 3. 5 to 1. 0: 4. 0, the water-cement ratio is preferably 0.42 to 0.50, and the sand ratio is preferably 50% to 60%.

Dry- and Wet-Mix Process Shotcrete| Concrete Construction ...

The placing equipment for wet mix shotcrete shall be designed and equipped to receive the shotcrete from the mixer, convey it through a delivery hose to a nozzle at the point of discharge, accelerate it in the nozzle by means of compressed oil free dry air, and spray it onto the surface of the work.

Shotcrete Topic - American Concrete Institute

Shotcrete Mix design Shotcrete design for wet process can be designed like conventional concrete but these mixes contain higher volume of fine aggregates and cement.

Coarse Aggregate Fine aggregate ratio in Shotcrete mix ...


Garden Guides | DIY Shotcrete

Wet-mix shotcrete rebounds somewhat less than dry-mix shotcrete. (4) The use of air-entraining admixtures (AEA) in shotcrete is practical only in wet-mix shotcrete. When batched properly, AEA forms an air-void system suitable for providing frost resistance to wet-mix shotcrete. The formation of an air-void system in dry-mix shotcrete is not ...

Wet-Mix Shotcrete | Strata Worldwide

Shotcrete is an “all-encompassing” term used to describe pneumatically projected concrete or mortar using either the dry-mix process or the wet-mix process. “Gunite,” an old term, refers only to the dry-mix process. In the dry-process (Fig. 12.1), bone dry cementitious mixture is blown to the nozzle through a hose where water is added by the nozzleman.

Shotcrete Wet-Mix Solutions | Putzmeister - EUROPE

Shotcrete is defined in the American Concrete Institute’s, “Guide to Shotcrete”, as the “process of mortar or concrete pneumatically projected at high velocity onto a surface”.Shotcrete is a method of delivery. The application of shotcrete can be performed using either the “Dry-Mix” (also referred to as gunnite), or “Wet-Mix” process.

Role of chemical admixtures in improving wet-mix shotcrete ...

Shotcrete is applied either as a wet mix or dry mix with water added at the nozzle. The wet mix process has the capability of placing either mortar or concrete. For concrete, the material will normally be delivered to the site by ready-mix truck or mixed at the site in a concrete mobile mixer. The coarse aggregate is normally limited to 9 mm (3 ...

Understanding the Shotcrete Pool Application - AQUA Magazine

For placing wet-mix shotcrete, ensure the materials are used within 90 minutes of mixing. Through observation, ensure a reasonably smooth and uniform finished surface for the type of work involved. Require low spots or depressions to be brought up to proper grade. Ensure the shotcrete is cured by one of the specified methods.


Wet Mix shotcrete 29-03-2017 58 Temporary High Initial Slump Method • Developed by Beaupré in 1994 • The required pumpability is achieved by addition of large amount of initial air content • This initial air content is lost during pumping and shooting operation • The initial air content should be 10-20% • The final air content will be 3-6% • This air loss upon impact on the shooting surface is referred to as a slump killing effect Source: Marc Jolin and Denis Beaupré ...

Full List - American Shotcrete Association

4,000 PSI Shotcrete Mix Design — Per Yard For Monolithic Concrete Dome Type Structures Type I, II Portland Cement 752 pounds Flyash 100 pounds Sand — 1/4” minus 2800 pounds (approximate) Water Reducer 3 ounces Air Entrainment 3 to 5 percent Water 40 to 50 gallons (depending on moisture content of sand, etc.)


Shotcrete is an all-inclusive term for spraying concrete or mortar with either a dry or wet mix process. History of gunite, aka Shotcrete First ever applied for intended purposes, gunite, or shotcrete was used by it’s inventor in 1907.

Affect of accelerators on Shotcrete strength ...

in order to shed some light on best practices of shotcrete for wall fascia and slope stabilization. A comprehensive review on the state of the knowledge of shotcrete is first presented, including its production and mix design, mechanical properties, short - and long -

Shotcrete - Wikipedia

EVALUATION OF WET-MIX SHOTCRETE CONTAINING SET-ACCELERATOR AND SERVICE LIFE PREDICTION M. Jolin1, F. Melo2, B.Bissonnette1, P. Power 3 and E. Demmard4 1 Full professor, Research Center on Concrete Infrastructures, Department of Civil and Water Engineering, Laval University, Quebec City, Qc, Canada; PH: 1-418-656-3163; Email:

Shotcrete or Sprayed Concrete or Gunite -Properties ...

The other type, wet mix, is simply called shotcrete. Let’s dive right into the gunite vs. shotcrete comparison. BASIC DIFFERENCE. Gunite A gunite pool is a pool shell formed by spraying at a high velocity and pressure, a dry cement mixture that is mixed with water manually by the operator at the nozzle end.

Concrete Pool Construction: How Does Shotcrete Work ...

Wet-mix shotcrete Shotcrete where the concrete, including water, is completely mixed prior to introduction into the delivery hose; compressed air is introduced to the material flow at the nozzle. References *ACI Certification Craftsman Workbook (CP-60 09), American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, 2009.


Shotcrete is a special wet-mix concrete that is conveyed through a hose and shot at a surface, hence the name. Typically used in building concrete pools, shotcrete is sent through a tube at a high pressure toward a surface, often on wire mesh to help it adhere to vertical surfaces.

Understanding What Can Cause Problems with ... - shotcrete.org

For wet-mix shotcrete, while the water/cement ratio is the same as the one in the initial mix, strengths can sometimes be as much as 30% lower than its cast counterpart (Banthia, Trottier, & Beaupré, 1994). Shotcrete has richer mixes to begin with and, during the process of shooting rebound of aggregate, renders the mixes even richer.

Understanding Wet Mix Shotcrete Mix Design

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Understanding Wet Mix Shotcrete Mix Design